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Full text of "Mexican painting and painters; a brief sketch of the development of the Spanish school of painting in Mexico"

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THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Aslor. Lenox and Tilden Foundations 



BEQUEST OF 

MRS. HENRY DRAPER 

1915 




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Mexican Painting 



AND Painters 



A Brief Sketch of the Development 

of the 
Spanish School of Painting in Mexico 



By ROBERT H. LAMBORN, Ph. D. 



NEW YORK 
1 89 1 



T© BE KEPT 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

687914 

A8TOM, LENOX AND 

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS 

R 1916 L 



COPYRIGHT 1891. 
BY ROBERT H. LAMBORN. 



Vv 



Allen, Lam &■ Scott, Pts., Pbila. 



LIMITED EDITION OF 

FIVE HUNDRED COPIES 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR. 



No 



jS, 




PREFACE. 

During the years 1881 and 1883 1 passed some seven months in 
and near the City of Mexico, and there secured, often from strange 
hiding places where they had rested since the secularization of the 
conventual establishments, about eighty paintings by i<nown and un- 
known colonial artists. Aware that a vast— 1 might almost say a super- 
abundant — literature treating of painters and paintings existed in our 
Northern capitals, and engrossed by the novel aspect of nature around 
me, I delayed examining my acquisitions historically until I should 
again be near the systematized accumulations of records of the several 
studious nations. This delay continued until, when invited by the 
trustees to place my collection where it might subserve a useful end, 
in Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, I turned to the great centres of eastern 
American thought, seeking knowledge relating to the fine arts in New 
Spain. Many thousands of volumes were rapidly sifted by means of 
catalogues, indexes, and the references of learned authors, and to my 
surprise the search secured but a limited number of isolated facts. 

These were placed in some order of sequence and assembled with 
others drawn from memory or gathered and recorded in note-books 
during my Mexican sojourn. 

My friends, the distinguished scholars. Dr. William C. Prime, Dr. 
Daniel G. Brinton, Edmund C. Stedman, Thomas A. Janvier, and that 

(5) 



6 PREFACE. 

erudite statesman, Senor Don Matias Romero, the present Mexican 
Minister at Washington — to all of whom 1 am indebted for valuable 
suggestions — have encouraged me in the belief that the assemblage 
merits the permanency of print. The support of the last-named gentle- 
man gives weight to my impression that not fewer than twenty-five 
thousand pictures were painted in the Vice-Royalty during the colonial 
period, and as I compare in my mind the canvases and panels 1 exam- 
ined in Mexico with thousands which crowd the galleries of Italy, I 
am persuaded that students of history will in due season recognize the 
fact that the repositories of our neighboring republic contain ample 
material for a treatise which would be honored in the annals of art, 
and form a memorable chapter in the record of human culture. 

Washington, D. C, May ist, 1891. 



CONTENTS. 



JuANA Inez de La Cruz. 

PACE 

Phototype of an old Mexican copy in oil of a portrait painted by 
herself — Brief outline of the life of the earliest Mexican 
poetess 13 



Santa Rosa De Lima. 

Phototype of an old oil painting on copper by a Mexican artist — 
Biographical notice of the only born American who has been 
canonized 17 



CHAPTER I. 

Introduction. 

The literature of America, England, France, and Germany singu- 
larly deficient in information regarding the Mexican Branch 
of the Spanish School of Art — Injustice to an important de- 
partment of human culture — Why the United States will 
excel in collections illustrating the progress of the race ... 21 

(7) 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER II. 

EUROPEAN PICTURES BY THE GREAT MASTERS FURNISH MEXICAN 
ARTISTS WITH THE BEST MODELS. 

PAGE 

Mexico's wealth and her vast ecclesiastical establishments foster 
domestic art — The transition from brilliant native featherwork 
to painting in oil colors — Many of the best Mexican pictures 
sold in Europe during the revolutionary period — The "En- 
tombment by Titian," at Tzintzuntzan, with an engraving 
from a pencil sketch by F. E. Church 25 



CHAPTER 111. 

THE SKILL OF PRE-COLUMBIAN ARTISTS FACILITATES THE INTRO- 
DUCTION OF EUROPEAN METHODS. 

Capacity of the aboriginal peoples of the Mexican table-land to 
model in clay ; to execute stone statues, feather mosaics, 
drawings and illuminations on prepared skins, and to work in 
gold, silver, copper, and precious stones — Ancient Aztec sacred 
works of art used in the service of the new faith 33 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE DAWN OF THE FINE ARTS IN NEW SPAIN. 

The European authorities discourage colonial art — Description of 
the celebrated picture of the Virgin of Guadalupe, which is 



CONTENTS. 



shown by Cabrera to be a supernatural work — Some Spanish 
painters who emigrated to Mexico in the Sixteenth Century — 
Rodrigo de Cifuentes, Andres de Concha 38 



CHAPTER V. 

CONTEMPORARY PAINTERS AND PAINTING IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 
AMERICA AND IN SPAIN. 

Early Spanish art modified by Italian and Flemish masters — 
Influence of the Escorial — Velazquez, Rubens, Echave, and 
Arteaga contemporaries — Murillo and Juarez — Cabrera and 
Mengs — Copley and West contemporaries of Ibarra and Ca- 
brera — Alston, Cole, and Vanderlyn appear as the Mexican 
school of colonial art expires — The Mexican National Academy 
of Fine Arts — The statue of Charles IV. — Portraits of the 
Mexican Viceroys and Archbishops 43 



CHAPTER VI. 

The most distinguished colonial painters and their best- 
known PICTURES. 

Balthasar Echave (or Chaves) el Viejo, "La Sumaya;" Sebas- 
tian Arteaga, Telpochtepico, Luis Juarez (or Xuarez), Diego 
Bongraf, Nicolas Becera, Balthasar de Echave (or Chaves) 



lo • CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

el Mozo, Jose Juarez (or Xuarez), J. Sanches Salmeron, Pedro 
Ramirez, M. Luna, Juan Correa, Juan Rodrigues Juarez (or 
Xuarez), Nicolas Rodriguez Juarez (or Xuarez), Cristobal Vii- 
lalpando, Antonio Torres, Jose Torres, Don Miguel de Men- 
doza. El Hermano Manuel Jesuito, Jose Ibarra, Francisco 
Martinez, Miguel Cabrera, Jose Antonio Vallejo, Mariano Vas- 
quez, Jose Alcibar, Patricio Morlet, Francisco Leon, Nicolas 
Enriques, Jose Paez, Don Francisco Gomez de Valencia, An- 
dres Lopez, Joseph Joaquin Magon, Manuel Caro, Fr. Miguel 
de Herrera, Juan Tinoco, Joaquin Esquivel, Antonio Eche- 
varria, Juan de Dios Cerda, Rafael Jimeno, Eduardo Tres- 
guerras 49 



CHAPTER VII. 

A LIST OF ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-ONE MEXICAN PAINTERS 
BELONGING TO THE SIXTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, AND EIGHT- 
EENTH Centuries, with dates observed on their pict- 
ures 67 

a catalogue of seventy-seven paintings illustrating the 
Mexican branch of the Spanish school of art. 

A collection made in 1881 and 1883 in Mexico, and now deposited 
with the Pennsylvania Museum at Memorial Hall, Philadelphia, 71 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBUC LIBRARY 



TILBtr* FOUNDAT" 



JUANA INEZ DE LA Cruz, whose portrait is liere given, 
was an early Mexican artist and tlie earliest Mexican poetess. 
This phototype is from an untouched photograph of an old 
life-size copy in oil of the original portrait painted by her- 
self, which copy I purchased in Puebla de los Angeles in 
1883, and have placed in my collection, illustrating the colo- 
nial art of Mexico, in Memorial Hall, Philadelphia. 

She was born in 165 1 in the town of Nepantla, near 
the National Capital, and was without doubt the most re- 
markable v/oman that Mexico has produced. At a very 
early age her precocious intellect led to her establishment at 
the vice-regal court as a lady in waiting. It is said a love 
affair caused her to assume the habit of the Carmelites, and 
for many years she lived as a nun in the convents of San 
Jose and San Geronimo, chiefly engaged in writing Spanish 
and Latin poems, and pursuing studies in science and poetic 
literature. In her forty-second year, and about two years be- 
fore her death, she was persuaded by her ecclesiastical ad- 
visers to abandon secular studies and devote herself to acts 
of severe penance. To this end she sold her library of more 
than four thousand volumes, with geographical maps and 
scientific and musical instruments. 

Berestain records among her works : a quarto published in 
Mexico in i58i, treating of the ceremonial entry of the Viceroy 

(13) 



14 INEZ DE LA CRUZ. 

Paredes ; "Judgment on a Sermon," a quarto printed in Puebla 
in 1690, which, it is asserted, shows a skill in theological 
discussion not surpassed by any contemporaneous writer ; 
"Sacred and Secular Poems," in two quarto volumes, of 
which six editions were published in Spain before 1700. 
Several productions are mentioned as still in manuscript ; 
one is a treatise on music, two are comedies, and three re- 
ligious dramas. A translation of the inscription beneath the 
portrait is given in the catalogue of pictures. 






m 



Santa Rosa de Lima is the only born American canonized 
saint. Tliis pliototype is from a picture painted in oil on a 
plate of hammered copper thirteen and one-half inches high 
by twelve and one-half inches wide, purchased in the city of 
Mexico in 1883, and now in Memorial Hall, Philadelphia. The 
former owner assured me that it once adorned the walls of 
the Convent of Santa Catalina de Sena. The signature in 
gilt scrip is yet undeciphered ; it was injured probably in 
rending the plate from its framing during some revolutionary 
outbreak. 

Santa Rosa was born in the capital of Peru in 1586. At an 
early age she became an admirer and follower of the austere 
Saint Catharine of Siena, and gave herself up unreservedly 
to acts of penance and charity. Among her self-imposed 
tasks, says Baring-Gould, was that of curing an acquaintance 
of the habit of smoking, which she accomplished by consecrat- 
ing thereunto five days of fervent prayer. He also relates that 
while she walked among the bitter herbs and wooden crosses 
with which she had planted her garden, she one day ex- 
claimed, " O, all ye green things of the earth, bless ye the 
Lord ! " Suddenly the neighboring trees began to shiver and 
clash their leaves together, and the stately poplars bowed 
their heads and reverently bent them until they touched the 
ground. 

(17) 



1 8 SANTA ROSA DE LIMA. 

A graceful story is also preserved by the same author, show- 
ing the warm sympathy that had grown up between her and 
the feral inhabitants of the neighboring groves. One spring a 
little bird built its nest in a mimosa tree near the cottage where 
the saint dwelt. Passing the tree during a morning walk she 
was greeted by a joyous song so clear and sweet that she 
ceased her meditations and listened. Presently it paused. 
Then upon the spur of the moment, inspired by the exultant 
tones of the happy creature, she improvised some appropriate 
Spanish verses and sang them in reply. When she had finished 
the bird burst forth in song again, and for an hour there in 
the cool garden shade they sang and listened alternately. 

In these Peruvian legends, originating in a period almost 
medieval in its characteristics, where mystery, prodigy, and 
miracle were woven into every theme addressed to the im- 
agination, we have evidence of the same passion for natural 
beauty — for birds and flowers and music — that a century 
later animated the gentle heart of Inez de la Cruz, when she 
sent forth from her Mexican convent cell her sweet Redondillas 
and Loas ; metrical compositions where Pan and Flora and 
Venus surrounded by nymphs recite in alternating numbers 
praises of earthly and heavenly beauty, joy, and perfection. 

After the works of Sister Inez had been given to the public, 
another century of art and song passed, and in the declining 
years of monasticism we find still again the deep poetic love 
of nature expressed in the choice made by the Mexican painter 
of this picture. He discards the sad scenes of pious austerity 
with which the life of Santa Rosa abounds, and seeks to 



SAT^TA ROSA DE LIMA. 19 

delight the souls of the nuns of Santa Catalina by a chaplet 
of full-blown roses and the legend of the garden with its melo- 
dious comradeship of sympathetic birds. Verily there is a 
wondrous store of material for the poet, the artist, and the 
composer lying in the half-forgotten annals of convent and 
court, of church and state, during the three long centuries 
of Spain's rule and misrule within that vast world of hers be- 
yond our Rio Grande. 

I am assured by the highest authority on the subject in 
Washington, that " Santa Rosa de Lima is the only born 
American canonized saint." She died, says Butler, in 1617, 
and was duly enrolled among the saints in 1671 by Clement X., 
it having been juridically proven by one hundred and eighty 
witnesses that several miracles were wrought by her means. 




Mexican Painting and Painters 



SEl^EU^TEEU^CTH /iD^D EIGHTEENTH CEU^TU%IES. 



CHAPTER I. 
INTRODUCTION. 



THE great historians of art apparently have main- 
tained a " conspiracy of silence " regarding the 
artists of New Spain. The Alps, the Apennines, 
and the Pyrenees have been diligently searched in all 
their recesses for names wherewith to lengthen already 
unduly swollen lists, while Mexico's more than a hundred 
recorded painters, a number of whom have left us pictures 
of great excellence, are utterly ignored or passed with the 
merest mention. 

The editors of the largest compilations of English, 
French, and German libraries make no note of Echave, 
Juarez, Ibarra, Arteaga, and Cabrera. That monumental 

(21) 



22 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

example of German erudition, the " Encyclopadie der 
Wissenschaften und Kiinste," whose seventy-five thou- 
sand pages treat of "all subjects upon which the human 
intellect exercises itself," only indirectly alludes to Mexico's 
painters ; " Bryan's Dictionary of Artists and Engravers," 
with its twelve thousand names ; the forty-six volumes 
of the great French " Biographie General ;" the twenty-four 
ponderous quartos of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; the 
fifteen thousand pages of "Brockhaus' Lexikon;" our own 
extensive American Cyclopedia — all, as far as my in- 
vestigations go, are mute regarding the American branch 
of that renowned school of which Murillo and Velazquez 
and Zurbaran were masters. A noteworthy group of artists 
it was too, and, though widely divided by distance and 
environment from the parent school, with facile pencils 
throughout more than two hundred years it gave solace 
to millions of pious hearts, and illuminated with thousands 
of brilliant compositions the walls of hundreds of eccle- 
siastical edifices in the wealthiest region of the New 
World. 

In the art of a nation, as in its songs and folk-lore, the 
student of civilization finds a profound significance. Its 
art history should, if possible, always be easily accessible. 
The silence of our literature touching this important depart- 
ment of Mexican culture, which is manifestly so unjust, 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 23 

may also be misleading. Wherefore I trust I sliall receive 
pardon for seeking to break that silence by offering even 
the scant array of facts herein ventured. 

The earliest artists were produced in a community 
where civilization had been stimulated by a singular con- 
junction of favoring conditions. Egypt was blessed with 
salubrity, sunshine, security from savages, and a kindly soil. 
Thus it came that her people stored up wealth, developed 
a leisure class, and made her the mother-nation of the Arts. 

Rome, transformed from brick to marble, became the 
repository of all that was beautiful in sculpture, painting, 
and the glyptic art only when her legions had garnered 
the accumulated treasures of Africa and Asia. 

When the Medici, the Bardi, the Strozzi, the cloth mer- 
chants and the bankers of the Arno, and the powerful prel- 
ates in the Tiber Valley were able to buy terrestrial and 
sell celestial monopolies, and thus lay the cupidity and the 
credulity of Europe under contribution, the prolific cinque- 
cento period came to Italy, with its Michael Angelo, its 
Raphael, and its Leonardo. 

The Dutch and Flemish schools of art flourished while 
the ships of the Low Countries swept the seas, gathering 
the wealth of the Indies into the warehouses of Antwerp 
and Amsterdam, and Spain gave to mankind her great 
painters only after a stream of metallic treasure, such as 



24 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

the world hitherto but vaguely dreamed of, had begun to 
flow homeward from her virgin veins in the mountains 
of Mexico and Peru. 

We of the United States are just now entering upon an 
unexampled period of art production and art collecting. 
This might have been predicated, because modern civiliza- 
tion has moved mankind forward into that stage where there 
is one superlative form of wealth; one substance that is 
convertible into all other forms of wealth ; one substance 
that, with irresistible magnetism, draws to it all material 
things that men value— the feather from Nubia, the ore from 
Elba, the painting from Paris. That protean substance, that 
superlative form of wealth, we possess stored far and wide 
in mountain masses ready for our hand. From Vancouver 
to Alabama, from Pictou to Laredo, it awaits our willing, to 
transmute itself into old masters, grand statues, rare books, 
antique gems, rich tapestries, or the glories of the modern 
easel. Our eastern cities began to reach out for it in 1820. 
They are now in one of its chief centres of production, 
and we call it stone coal. In these days of steam and elec- 
tricity we may confidently predict that wherever the coal 
is, there will art treasures and artists collect, and that in 
the Twentieth Century coal and iron will form the mount- 
ain that shall compel the presence of the latter-day prophet, 
whether he be Mohammedan or Christian, Artist or Poet. 



CHAPTER II. 

IMPORTED PICTURES BY THE GREAT MASTERS FURNISH 
MEXICAN ARTISTS WITH THE BEST MODELS. 

THREE centuries ago civilization had not passed be- 
yond the cruder stage when stored wealth was 
mainly represented by the precious metals, and 
Mexico led the entire world in producing them. In ij^o 
the four richest men in America were " bonanza kings " at 
Zacatecas, and fortunes exceeding those of a dozen Euro- 
pean princelings combined were accumulated in a single 
generation. 

The prolific mines of the Cordilleras indeed, had already 
made a large leisure class possible. This class was the 
clergy, or those opulent contemporaries among the laity 
whose ideals were formed by its influence. Naturally, 
therefore, the surplus wealth of the Nation was chiefly 
expended upon ecclesiastical edifices and their adornments. 
The Council of Trent (confirmed i ^64) designated the char- 
acter of the works of art to be used in churches, when it 

(25) 



26 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

ordained that images of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the 
Saints were to be set up and retained therein, and due 
honor and veneration accorded them. Prized pictures of 
holy personages, places, and events were taken from under 
the grasp of wealthy collectors of the Old World, to be 
transported to the walls of Mexican sacristies. Titian, 
Velazquez, Murillo, and a host of lesser names, lent lustre 
to Mexico's sacred shrines, and many a galleon laden with 
ingots and coin was carefully convoyed from Vera Cruz 
through the haunts of the buccaneers, to return from Spain 
bringing sacred pictures and images, with vessels for the 
altar, and bones of Saints, and, best of all for the devout 
believer, pieces of the True Cross from the Mount of 
Calvary. 

The Mexican statesman, Zamacona, told me that within 
a few decades works by Velazquez still hung upon the 
walls of a secularized Puebla refectory, then used as a 
shelter for a riding school. There are several more or less 
well-authenticated pictures by Murillo and Velazquez in 
Mexican private collections, and in the Academy of Fine 
Arts at the Capital; but I am convinced that the number 
of meritorious examples of European art now in Mexico 
has been greatly exaggerated. When poverty fell upon 
the country during the revolutionary period the works 
of renowned masters, as well as great numbers from 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 27 

humbler pencils, were sought out by eager speculators 
and sent to a ready market in the old world. A careful in- 
vestigator, previous to 1864, examined over two thousand 
pictures, that were stored by the government after the 
general secularization of ecclesiastical property, in the con- 
ventual buildings of the Incarnation, in the Capital. He 
found very few of foreign origin. Therefore we may 
conclude with confidence that all save a small fraction of 
the thousands of canvasses left for our study on the 
walls of the convents, churches, and private houses 
throughout the Republic were produced by the pencils of 
native artists. 

One of the most striking monuments of the ebb and 
flow of the tide of human wealth and power that the 
world presents is the magnificent Titian, stranded in a 
squalid Indian village fifteen miles from Patzcuaro, and 
near the lake of the same name. This village is called, in 
the Tarascan tongue, "Tzintzuntzan," an imitative word 
signifying "the home of the humming birds." A local 
legend relates how, long ago, the parent tribe, moving 
southward from the mysterious seven caverns, was greeted 
on this picturesque shore by flocks of tiny scintillating 
golden, copper, and crimson-tinted birds. Wise men 
thereupon took counsel and announced to their followers 
that the beautiful creatures flashing in the sunlight were 



28 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

the spirits of their tutelary gods assembled to com- 
mand that a great city should be built then and there. 
Thus originated the Tarascan capital of the "Attica of 
Ancient Mexico," Michiocan. Spaniards arriving long after- 
wards found skillful native artists honoring their tradi- 
tional gods in pictures formed by attaching the resplen- 
dent plumage of humming birds to a fabric formed of 
Maguey fibre. By a strange coincidence the pantheon of 
the Tarascans contained a supernatural virgin, and thus 
by an easy transition the simple people came to accept 
and to represent in the sacred featherwork the Queen of 
Heaven of the conquering creed. It was but a short step 
for an artist in tinted feathers to become an artist in 
paints and oil. The art-loving Philip II., who chose his 
painters so wisely, may have appreciated the skill of these 
early makers of the most exquisite mosaics that human 
handicraft can produce when he sent to their church, dur- 
ing the Bishopric of Quiroga, a glowing picture by Europe's 
great colorist. Charles Dudley Warner thus speaks of it in 
his Mexican Notes: "In the sacristy adjoining the ancient 
monastery is the treasure of Mexico. The room is oblong 
and has windows only on one side, toward the west ; 
broad windows closed with shutters. Across and filling 
one end, over the vestment chest, is the great picture, 
'The Entombment' 







3 

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c 



3 
Z 

U 







"1 1 ill I ■ 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 3 I 

" The canvas is inclosed in a splendid, old carved frame. 
It contains eleven figures, all life size. In the upper left- 
hand corner is a bit of very Titianesque landscape. On a 
hill are three crosses in relief against an orange sky. In 
the lower left-hand corner is Mary Magdalen seated on 
the ground, contemplating the nails and crown of thorns. 
The figure of Christ supported on a sheet is being carried 
to the tomb — a dark cavern in the rear. Two men hold- 
ing the sheet support the head, and one the feet. Aiding 
also in the tender office is a woman, her head bowed over 
the dead Christ. Behind are St. John, Mary the Virgin, 
Mary whom Christ loved, and St. Joseph. As you study 
the picture you have no doubt that it is an original, not a 
copy, and, thanks to the atmosphere of the region, it is in 
a perfect state of preservation." 

Hopkinson Smith, who visited this "Entombment" in 
1889, says : " More than three hundred years have elapsed 
since the great master touched it, and yet one is deluded 
into the belief that it was painted yesterday, so fresh, 
pure, and rich is the color. It is sixteen feet long and 
seven feet high. The exquisite drawing of each figure, 
the graduation of light and shade, the marvelous com- 
position, the relief and modeling of the Christ, the low but 
luminous tones in which it is painted, the superb har- 
mony of those tones, all pronounce it to be a work of a 



3 2 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

master. The subject was a favorite one with Titian, no- 
tably the Entombment at Venice and the replica at the 
Louvre. It is quite within the range of probability that 
Philip either ordered this picture from the master himself 
or selected it from the royal collection." The figure at 
the extreme right is pointed out as the portrait of the 
royal donor. 

In I pi, and the decades immediately following, when 
thousands of baptisms were often performed in a single 
day, and temples were everywhere rising under the su- 
pervision of zealous friars, the demand for pictures of 
religious subjects far exceeded the European supply. Then 
it was that the native artist came forward, and during the 
Sixteenth Century the preliminary steps for a Cis-Atlantic 
school were gradually taken on the Mexican Table Land. 
This centre of art production continued in existence more 
than two hundred years, and only ceased to be prolific 
when the throes of revolution convulsed the country at 
the beginning of the current century. It has, however, 
bequeathed to the student of to-day a host of pictures 
belonging to what may be called the "Mexican branch of 
the great Spanish school of Art." The conditions existing 
during the formative period of this American subsidiary 
school furnish an interesting subject for speculation. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE SKILL OF PRE-COLUMBIAN ARTISTS FACILITATES THE 
INTRODUCTION OF EUROPEAN METHODS. 

THE capacity to appreciate and to execute primitive 
works of art was widely disseminated among tlie 
Nahuan tribes in pre-Columbian times. This is 
shown in the remarkable miniature terra-cotta heads found 
by thousands in the surface soil around the great pyramids 
of Teotihuacan, and those placed upon some of the sepul- 
chral vases of the Valley of Mexico. They are often 
modeled with much skill, and many of them were un- 
doubtedly intended for portraits. I have deposited an 
ancient terra-cotta vase of admirable workmanship in the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York, which was found near 
Toluca in excavating for the Mexican National Railroad, and 
also in the same museum and in the neighboring Museum 
of Natural History several hundred ancient heads that 1 
obtained at localities adjacent to the Capital. Upon one 
side of the vase is a portrait bust of an Aztec chief, with 
large ear ornaments and other accessories denoting his rank. 

(33) 



H MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

A number of codices that furnish ample evidence of the 
patience and artistic training of the pre-Columbian scribes, 
or we might say illuminators, are preserved with anti- 
quarian solicitude. Some of these, folded like long maps 
and drawn in brilliant colors with a bold hand on stag 
skins specially tanned and prepared with a white surface, 
I have examined among the prized treasures of English 
and Continental libraries. Such early drawings were made 
in most cases as elements in a system of picture writ- 
ing that appears to have been approaching its phonetic 
stage. 

Cortez, in one of his letters to Charles V., bears testi- 
mony to the singular artistic aptitude and skill of the new 
subjects, as follows : "All which the earth and ocean pro- 
duce of which King Montezuma could have any knowl- 
edge he had caused to be imitated in gold, silver, and 
precious stones, and feathers, and the whole in such great 
perfection that one could not help believing he saw the 
very objects represented." The Spanish monarchs seem to 
have been competent judges of such handicraft, for had 
not the Imperial Charles himself an expert's knowledge of 
complex watches and automata; and did not Charles the 
IV. long afterwards employ his Royal fingers in embroider- 
ing gowns for the sacred images of the chapel of San 
lldefonso ? 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. j^ 

I have mentioned the works of the aboriginal peoples 
chiefly to show that the earliest, and probably what is the 
most protracted period in the development of the arts of 
drawing, painting, and sculpture had already been traversed 
by them long before the influence of European thought 
intruded. Eleven years after the Conquest the native 
pupils of the schools established at the Capital excited the 
approbation of the excellent Friar Motolinia, who gives 
them praise for the brevity of the training required to de- 
velop the capacity to make fac similes of elaborate manu- 
scripts, and to produce copies of drawings and illuminations 
that were received in Spain with many tokens of admira- 
tion. 

So ingenious, indeed, were the Aztec workmen that no 
Spanish artisan could conceal his methods. An immigrant 
weaver sought to levy high prices on the friars, but pious 
natives watched him secretly, and presently came to the 
brethren, bringing a supply of both cloth and ready-made 
robes, all of their own production. Images of the native 
gods had been manufactured in such vast numbers that 
the Franciscans alone claim to have destroyed twenty 
thousand in seven years, and these iconoclasts found it 
very difficult to make the native worshiper understand the 
difference between the old deity, to whom so many vir- 
tues and benefits were ascribed, and the saints that figured 



36 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

in wood and on canvas in tlie temples of the new faith. 
That the process of conversion was gradual we have evi- 
dence in the aboriginal mirrors of obsidian, which are said 
to have been used in the ceremonies of the sun-wor- 
shipers. They were taken from the pagan sanctuaries by 
the newcomers, adorned on the unwrought side with 
holy images and symbols, and placed upon the altars of 
the modern temples. I examined in 1881 an admirable 
example of these shield-shaped objects, about ten inches in 
diameter, in the collection of Dr. Kaska, in Mexico. An 
exquisite oil painting of the Virgin in robes of blue smiled 
benignly from one surface, while upon the reverse a deli- 
cate polish, the result of ancient native skill, made of the 
dark volcanic glass a reflector capable of returning an 
undistorted and distinct image of any brilliant object. 

Indeed, the value of pictorial representation was ac- 
knowledged in the very earliest efforts of the missionary 
to loosen the hold of the hereditary gods upon the popu- 
lar mind. At the shrine of Los Remedios a carved wooden 
image is still venerated that was brought from Spain by 
one of Cortez' soldiers ; during the brief earliest period 
of occupation in 1^19, when the Spaniards held the Capi- 
tal, it was set up, for worship, among the old Nahuan gods 
upon the central Teocallis. In the National Museum is pre- 
served a coiled, feathered serpent-god carved in stone, 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 37 

which being inverted and hollowed out served, until re- 
cently, in a modern church as a font for holy water. 
Later ecclesiastical art did not contemn this mingling of 
the old with the new, and confidence in the immigrating 
saints was often secured by lending them a local color- 
ing. The "Black Virgin," number 18 in the collection 
herein catalogued, was probably thought to appeal with 
peculiar force to the sympathies of dusky devotees. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE DAWN OF THE FINE ARTS IN NEW SPAIN. 

DOUBTLESS pictures of modest merit rested upon 
the altar of the first convent built in ip6 and 
hung from the walls of the hundred places of 
worship that zealous Friar Gante claimed to have erected 
for the people within a brief period following the advent 
of the Europeans. Native talent, however, would have 
developed more rapidly but for governmental interference. 
An ordinance promulgated in ipy prohibited workers in 
the precious metals, under pain of death, from exercising 
their calling in New Spain. Mexican writers lament this as 
one of the severest blows ever aimed at domestic culture. 
No interdiction, however, was placed upon the painters' art, 
for in 1^33 the people in the Valley of Cuernavaca sought 
to prove the imposition by Cortez of unreasonable taxes, 
by bringing to the Capital eight pictures descriptive of the 
onerous tributes they had been forced to pay the Marquis. 
Here it is proper to mention a painting that was, and 

still is, far the most renowned of any that existed in the 

(38) 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 39 

new world during the period of Spanish supremacy— the 
Virgin of Guadalupe (No. 68). This miraculous production 
appeared on the mantle or tilma of the Indian Juan Diego, 
in 191. The following year it was placed in a shrine, and 
in due season transferred to a magnificent church, where a 
silver altar railing and rich ornaments of gold added to the 
grander architectural attractions. The miracle was con- 
firmed by the congregation of rites at Rome, in 17^4. 
This painting represents the Virgin standing with the right 
foot on a crescent moon, supported by a cherub with 
wings outspread. Her hands are clasped upon her breast. 
A rose-colored tunic, richly embroidered, covers her form, 
and a girdle of velvet clasps her waist. The blue mantle, 
decorated with stars, partially covers the head, upon which 
rests a golden crown with ten points or rays. 

At a meeting of artists in Mexico, in 1751, Miguel Cab- 
rera was selected to paint a copy of the sacred image for 
Pope Benedict XI V-* Cabrera, in 1756, wrote an extended 

*I am indebted to my friend, Dr. William C. Prime, for the knowl- 
edge of a book in his library in which are recorded certain judicial proceed- 
ings attesting the facts of a curious epidemic of miracles that made the 
end of the Eighteenth Century memorable among the holy images of 
Italy. Here it is stated that the Virgin of Guadalupe, which had been 
copied by a capital artist and presented to the Church of St. Nicholas 
at Rome, was repeatedly seen to move her eyes and otherwise evince 
her intelligent interest in mundane affairs. In all probability this was 
the copy by Cabrera, mentioned above. 



40 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

description of the picture, in which he states that it is two 
feet five inches wide, five feet nine inches long, and that 
the length of the Virgin's figure is about thirty-three 
inches. It is painted on a coarse, native cloth, manufact- 
ured from the fibre of the agave, and "the countenance 
is so exquisitely beautiful in every feature, that no one 
could deny on seeing it that it is a supernatural work." 
It is magnificently framed and preserved under glass in the 
tabernacle of the church built upon the spot above Lake 
Tezcoco, just east of the Capital, where the miracle occur- 
red, and where in the olden times Tonantzin, the Aztec 
mother of the gods, was devoutly worshiped. 

Portraits of ecclesiastical dignitaries are numerous in 
Mexico. In 1881 I examined, near Tacuba, in the lofts of 
the secularized Carmelite Monastery of San Joachim, now 
owned by General Palmer, of New York, an almost un- 
broken series of the robed and tonsured officials of one 
branch of the order, extending through its Mexican exist- 
ence back to some valley in the Appenines, and the Fif- 
teenth Century. 

Although the first book printed on the American con- 
tinent was published in the city of Mexico in 1^36 (more 
than a century before our first press started at Cam- 
bridge), and at least eighty volumes saw the light before 
1600, scarcely a record has come to us of the lives and 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 41 

works of Mexican painters of the Sixteenth Century. In 
all probability the artists of that period were chiefly drawn 
from the rank and file of the ecclesiastics, and their names 
have been lost in the effulgence of their titled superiors. 
One Rodrigo De Cifuentes, who was born at Cordova, in 
149^, appears to have followed Cortez to New Spain as 
early as 1^3, and accompanied him to Honduras. He 
painted the great leader's portrait, and that of Dona Ma- 
rina in I ^38, and afterwards several ecclesiastics of distinc- 
tion, as well as those of members of the first audiencias. 
Several of these were believed to exist in the Church of 
Santiago Tlalteloco within a recent period. He also painted 
a number of pictures for the Franciscans at Tehuantepec, 
among which is his masterpiece, the " Baptism of Max- 
iscatzin." Then came Andres de Concha, who orna- 
mented the temporary works erected in celebrating the 
obsequies of Philip II., in 1^99, and also painted an altar- 
piece for the Church of San Augustin. 

It is not until the early years of the following cent- 
ury that the history of Mexican art takes a definite form. 
We have to thank these early years for many of the best 
pictures that the easels of Mexico have produced. Thence- 
forward year by year, for two centuries, a series of busy 
artists sent forth, in an unbroken stream, thousands of 
canvases, and panels, and plates of copper covered with 



42 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

compositions, suited to the usages of the prevailing cult. 
Gradually these creations declined in excellence, and, with 
a few notable exceptions, the deterioration was curiously 
continuous. This is not the place to discuss the causes 
that led to the decline. This study belongs to the do- 
main of the student of ethnology, or to the historian who 
traces the vicissitudes of races existing upon or springing 
from the Iberian Peninsula. Spain's domestic art devel- 
opment naturally deeply affected that of her contemporary 
and dependent colonies. A glance at the characteristics 
of the Spanish school during the period under considera- 
tion will therefore be appropriate. 



CHAPTER V. 

CONTEMPORARY PAINTERS AND PAINTING IN ENGLISH AND 
SPANISH AMERICA AND IN SPAIN. 

AFTER the defeat of the Moors in 1492, Spanish 
art, grown rigid and formal under the influence of 
its powerful patrons, the ecclesiastical establish- 
ments, soon began to yield to the genial teachings of 
Italian and Flemish masters. The Escorial, that magnifi- 
cent Convent, Church, College, Palace, and Royal Mau- 
soleum, than which probably no single edifice ever con- 
tained so many inestimable treasures, was founded by 
Philip II. in 1^63. It at once became a centre for the 
display of domestic and foreign talent, and its walls grew 
resplendent with the works of the world's best artists. 
Among them were many by Titian, whose pencil is still 
represented in Madrid by forty-one canvases. 

Velazquez, "the painter of kings, and the king of 
painters," the many-sided Velazquez, who was born in 
1^99, thus found the way made ready for his glorious 
genius; and Murillo, who came eighteen years later, had 

(43) 



44 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

in the priceless collections of the royal palace, as well as 
in the triumphs of Velazquez, rich sources for study and 
emulation. 

While the master minds of Spain were furnishing com- 
ing generations with noble examples of artistic and lite- 
rary excellence,* emigrant compatriots set up their easels 
in sunny studios looking out upon the eternal snows of 
Popocatapetl and Orizaba, where nature, enthroned amid 
harmonious grandeur, seems ever at peace with herself. 
There, while Velazquez was elaborating his " Bebedores," 
and royally feasting his friend Rubens in Madrid, Echave 
the elder and Arteaga wrought into color their glowing 
conceptions. And during the period that matured Murillo's 
genius and brought into being the divine creations of the 
Caridad, Jose Juarez delighted pious souls in the Capital 
of the new world with the embodiment of his ideals of 
heavenly saints and holy men. 

* In 1605 the first part of Don Quixote was published, and 
" Cervantes smiled Spain's chivalry away." 

He had fruitlessly petitioned Philip II., in 1590, for employment in 
the new world. 

Lope de Vega lisped his earliest verses to his schoolfellows before 
1568; in 1588 he boarded the "St. John," and, sailing away with the 
Invincible Armada, wrote "The Beauty of Angelica" amidst the turmoil 
of that disastrous expedition. In 1635 his prolific muse was stilled: — 

"death's old trick 

Put pause to life and rhetoric." 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 4^ 

The years that marked the melancholy decline in 
Spain's artistic power also saw a corresponding recession 
in the capacity of her favorite colony. The expiring flame 
in the East rose into fitful brilliancy when Goya appeared 
in the middle years of the Eighteenth Century, and Mexi- 
can art burst into an unwonted glow when Ibarra and 
Cabrera sent forth their beautiful works to adorn her 
altars and conservatories. Cabrera, the Indian, was fol- 
lowed, with here and there a brilliant exception, by a 
series of weak and servile imitators, each one more feeble 
than his predecessor. The true student of art, however, 
must investigate its epochs of decadence with the same 
critical scientific scrutiny that the pathologist bestows 
upon cases of physical debility, while the philosopher, 
seeking in mankind the impulses toward higher culture, 
may gather many suggestive lessons from the annals of 
nations whose vitality is declining. 

The citizen of the United States observes with curious 
interest, that while the Mexican and the Spanish schools, 
though widely separated in space, were thus in their deca- 
dence passing down the centuries upon parallel lines, his 
own country during those same years displays but blank 
pages in the art records of the world. The high table-land 
of Nahua had already produced thousands of beautiful 
pictures before the axes of Penn's followers rang among 



46 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

the oak forests of Philadelphia, and the best works from 
a Mexican palette were executed before New Amsterdam 
existed. When in 171 ^ tlie Scotchman, John Watson, 
who "stands at the head of the roll of American paint- 
ers," established himself at Perth Amboy, and when 
Symbert brought his copy of Van Dyke's Bentivoglio 
to Newport — an inspiration for our best colonial portrait 
painters — the greatest Mexican artists had been already 
long ago gathered to their fathers, and the Mexican school 
was far along in its decadence. 

Our most meritorious colonial artists, Copley and West, 
were contemporaries of the later Mexican painters Ibarra 
and Cabrera, and as our vigorous existing school arose 
with Allston, Cole, and Vanderlyn, the prolific colonial 
period of Mexican art expired amid the melancholy ob- 
scurity of nameless daubsters. 

In the Capital of our Southern neighbor the traveler of 
to-day is rejoiced by the serious effort that has been made 
to keep together and preserve those monuments of past 
intellectual activity which nations in the throes of political 
regeneration so often allow to perish by the wayside.* 

* Students of the history of civilization have frequent occasion to de- 
plore the loss of mementoes of inestimable importance, in countries under 
the influence of a far higher culture than that usually ascribed to Mexico. 
The recent wanton mutilation of the celebrated monuments of ancient 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 47 

In the National Academy of Fine Arts — formerly known as 
the Academia de las Nobles Aties de San Carlos de la Niieva 
Espafia — which originated in an engraving school estab- 
lished at the mint by a royal order of Charles III., in 1778, 
and which now occupies a large structure near the centre 
of the metropolis, one may study Mexican art in its best 
phases. This collection remained for many years the most 
complete upon the American hemisphere. In addition to 
the paintings of the native masters, it is enriched by beau- 
tiful examples that are now generally pronounced original 
from the pencils of Velazquez, Murillo, Leonardo, Guido, 
Van Dyke, Rubens, Spagnoletto, Vaccara, Guercino, and 
Zurbaran. The Chapter-room of the Cathedral contains, 
among other fine pictures, a Virgin by Pietro de Cortona, 
and "The Virgin of Bethlehem" by Murillo. A set of casts 
from the antique, costing ^40,000, was sent to the Acad- 
emy from Spain by Charles III., in 1791. At the same 
time came the best known of Mexico's sculptors, Manuel 
Tolsa, who modeled the imposing equestrian statue of 
Charles IV. now standing at the eastern entrance of the 

art in the Egyptian tombs of Beni-Hasan is a flagrant case in point. 
That most precious existing record of early English history — the 
" Bayeux Tapestry " — (it is really embroidery) — barely escaped destruc- 
tion during the French revolution. It was demanded by soldiers that 
they might use it to cover their guns, and was saved by being hastily 
removed to a secure hiding-place. 



48 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

Grand Paseo leading to Chapultepec. This figure, which 
will always be noteworthy as the first important work of 
art in bronze produced in America, was cast by Salvador 
de la Vega in 1802. It weighs about thirty tons, while the 
horse and rider are together fifteen feet nine inches high. 
In the National Museum may be found a collection of 
portraits (formerly in the halls of the National Palace) of 
the sixty-two Viceroys that governed New Spain. This is 
arranged in chronological order, beginning with Antonio de 
Mendoza in 1535 and ending in 1821 with Juan O'Donoju, 
member of the Regency. At the Cathedral is an inter- 
esting collection of the portraits of all the Mexican Arch- 
bishops. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MOST DISTINGUISHED MEXICAN COLONIAL PAINTERS 
AND THEIR BEST-KNOWN PICTURES. 

THE artists of whom brief biographical sketches are 
here given were either natives of Mexico, or iden- 
tified themselves with her Art history by spending 
important portions of their lives within her borders, and 
are those whose productions are most highly esteemed.* 

Balthasar Echave (or Chaves), el Viejo, 

is considered the most notable of the 
founders of the art of painting in Mexico, and his pictures 
are perhaps the earliest of which the date and origin can 
be determined with certainty. Many of them at one time 

* I am deeply indebted to the works of Rafael Lucio, Hubert Bancroft, 
Thomas A. Janvier (particularly to his admirable "Mexican Guide"), to 
the valuable advice and assistance of the several friends whose names 
are mentioned in the preface, to the works of Berestain, of Beltrami, of 
Charles Dudley Warner, of F. Hopkinson Smith, to "Mexico al traves de 
los Siglos," to Curtis' "Velazquez and Murillo," to Stirling's "Annals," 
and to many other books and persons whose names are lost amid the 
lapses of my Mexican notes. 

(49) 



^O MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

adorned the walls of the Convent of "The Professa." He 
may be studied now at the National Academy, where sev- 
eral of his best works have been assembled. There are 
preserved his " Adoration of the Magi," the " Holy Fam- 
ily," the " Martyrdom of San Aproniano," the " Holy Sep- 
ulchre," " Santa Ana and the Virgin," and the " Meeting of 
Mary and Elizabeth," while the "Triumph of Mary," the 
" Triumph of the Cross," " Faith Destroying Idolatry," 
and several allegorical pictures adorn the sacristy of the 
Cathedral at Puebla. Echave not only excelled in his 
large canvases, where his style was singularly impressive, 
but he had a capacity for exquisite detail which reminds 
us of the best Flemish masters. Among the pictures be- 
longing to this last-named class that have come down to 
us is a beautiful representation of San Antonio Abad, and 
San Pablo the first Hermit. 

Echave was a Spaniard, born at Zumaya, in the prov- 
ince of Guipuzcoa in Spain, who emigrated to Mexico with 
his style partly formed. He was of the Valencian school, 
and his later pictures produced in Mexico are considered 
superior to those he first painted. Berestain says that 
in 1816 two of his pictures, Santa Isabel de Portugal and 
Santa Rosa de Viterbo, existed in the establishment of 
Iraeta, Icasa & Iturbe, at the Capital, and that he wrote 
"Antiguedad de la Lengua de Cantabria," a quarto volume. 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. ^I 

printed at Mexico in 1607. The dates that have been ob- 
served on his paintings begin with 1603 and extend to 1630. 

"La Sumaya" 

is believed to have been the wife of Echave 

and his skillful co-worker. In the Mexican Cathedral 
is a picture of St. Sebastian, for which she is highly com- 
mended by that notable Eighteenth Century annalist, Licen- 
ciado D. Cayetano de Cabrera y Quintado, in his Esaido 
de Annas de Mexico'^ This painting, according to Lucio, in 

* As my manuscript goes to the press a letter reaches me from that 
accomplished student of Mexican literature and history, Janvier, bringing 
with many valued facts "a delightful literal bit from dear old Cabrera, 
who is a maddening creature to read, for he never comes to a full stop 
save when he ends a paragraph." 1 take the liberty to print this "bit" 
directly from the translator's letter, feeling assured that whosoever 
reads it will join me in hoping that one so well equipped, and so deeply 
enamored of all that is beautiful and bizarre in Mexican lore will con- 
tinue throughout many volumes to delight those who stand expectant, 
watching the gradual drawing aside of the veil thrown by time and 
change about the quaint world of Spanish-American thought. 

"Referring to San Sebastian, Cabrera writes: — 

"... in one of his Altars, and it is that one which is erected in 
the tras-coro, is seen through glass his Image, and valiant Picture, a 
marvel to Professors of the Art, and the work, according to its tradition, 
of the famous Sumaya, a celebrated Painter in this City, Mistress not 
only in painting, but in that she taught the celebrated Viscaino Balthasar 
Echave, the first, and whom she had for her husband, and disciple, and 
the sons of these parents degenerated not : this beautiful Image has been 
lately placed in this same site, and Altar, which is also that of Nra. Sra. 
del Perd6n. Esaido de Armas, 1746, page 140.' " 



p MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

1864 Still occupied its dark and elevated position beneath 
protecting glass, defying every attempt to find upon it 
a legible date or signature. To " La Sumaya " are also 
attributed by Rivera Cambas certain representations of 
passages in tlie life of the Virgin over the altar in the 
Capilla de los Reyes in the same Cathedral. 

Sebastian Arteaga, 

who signed himself Nofan'o del Santo 
Oficio, was both a painter and an architect ; he is joined 
with Echave in the honor of having founded the Mex- 
ican school. He came from Spain in the last years of 
the Sixteenth Century with his manner already formed. 
His effects are striking and grand, and while the drawing 
of his human figures is well worthy of commendation, his 
accessories are carelessly executed. The " Christ and St. 
Thomas" and the "Crucifixion," in the National Academy, 
are representative works of his pencil, and Beltrami men- 
tions with high praise a "Visitation of the Virgin to Santa 
Theresa." 

Telpochtepico 

was a pupil of Arteaga, and a Tarascan 
Indian from near Lake Patzcuaro, a district of Michoacan 
famous in aboriginal times for its exquisite mosaic pictures 
cunningly formed from the many-tinted humming-bird 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. ?3 

feathers. This native artist is said to have made satisfac- 
tory progress in oils. 

Luis Juarez, or Xuarez, 

whose works are contemporary with those 
of Echave, which they resemble without equaling, is dis- 
tinguished for the beauty of the angels with which his 
pictures abound ; many of them appear to have been pro- 
duced for the Carmelite nuns and monks of the valley. 
In the National Academy he may be studied in the quaint 
"Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" that hangs in the Sala de 
Actos, and the admirable "Christ in the Garden" in the 
first gallery. He painted as early as 1610; in 1621 he 
produced a grand altar piece for the Church of Jesus Maria, 
for which he received nine thousand dollars.* 

Diego Bongraf 

is believed to have been a Spaniard 

domicilated in Mexico ; several of his works suggesting 

old world culture are in Puebla, on one of which is the 

date 1 6 5^6. 

Nicolas Becera 

painted in 16^3 ; his manner is similar 

to that of Luis Juarez. 

* The sum paid Murillo in 1674 for the eight grand pictures painted 
for La Caridad was less than four thousand dollars. These productions 
of the artist's best period are ranked high among the world's masterpieces. 



^4 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

Balthasar de Echave (or Chaves), el Mozo, 

was the son of Echave el Viejo. One of 
his pictures in the National Academy is dated i66^. His 
manner is animated and frank, but wanting in care, and 
he falls far behind the older artist in his capacity for de- 
picting the devotional sentiments. 

Jose Juarez, or Xuarez, 

drew admirably, and is ranked by some 
Mexican critics with the elder Echave. The angels in the 
picture of the "Martyrdom of St. Pastor and St. Justo," 
in the National Academy, are worthy of the hand of an 
early Italian master. The "Life of St. Alexis" and "The 
Adoration of the three Magi " are in the same collection. 
He painted between 1642 and 16^3. 

J. Sanches Salmeron, 

one of whose works is dated 1670, drew 
well and painted some vigorous pictures. 

Pedro Ramirez 

is believed to be the painter who made 
a reputation in Spain before coming to the new world, 
and whose works are found worthy of a place in the 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. ^5 

National Museum at Madrid. In Mexico liis name is pre- 
served by numerous pictures on panel. 

M. Luna 

drew gracefully and painted in a style that 

is thought to resemble Murillo in his first epoch. Some of 

his pictures have been confidently ascribed to the Spanish 

master. 

Juan Correa 

was the master of Ibarra and Cabrera, and a 

prolific painter. He produced works of fair merit, among 
which are the " Immaculate Conception " over the stalls in 
Mexico's Cathedral, and the " Assumption," " The Catholic 
Church," and the "Entry into Jerusalem," in the neigh- 
boring sacristy. He has also a large canvas containing 
scenes from the life of St. Francis, in the sacristy of the 
Church of San Diego at Aguas Calientes. In 182^ Bel- 
trami described a series of pictures painted by this artist 
on the walls of the Professa refectory, representing "The 
history of the human heart deformed by Sin and regen- 
erated by Religion and Virtue." The Italian declares that 
this series compares favorably with those time-honored 
pictorial expositions of dogma that look down from the 
frescoes of Pisa's Campo Santo and the cloister walls of 
Santa Maria de Novella, at Florence. 



^6 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

Juan Rodriguez Juarez, or Xuarez, 

was the nephew of Jose Juarez, and was 
sometimes called the Mexican Caracci. He had a prolific 
pencil and a high local reputation. He is considered the 
earliest artist to adopt the manner that was afterwards 
adopted and accentuated by Cabrera, and which became 
general in Mexico in the Eighteenth Century. The pict- 
ures of these artists were thinly spread upon the canvas, 
and their lights and shades feebly contrasted, but their 
colors were brilliant and clear. Notable works of Juarez 
are the " Epiphany " and the " Assumption," in the Cathe- 
dral at Mexico. Others are at Morelia, in the sacristy of 
the Cathedral and in the Church of the Carmen. Paint- 
ings of his are dated 1702 and 1720. 

Nicolas Rodriguez Juarez, or Xuarez, 

was a priest, a portrait painter, a brother 
of the last-named artist, and has been surnamed "the 
Apelles of Mexico." His earliest pictures are in the style 
of the Seventeenth Century; he afterwards painted in the 
more brilliant and luminous manner of a later period. His 
picture, in the National Museum, of Don Joachin Munez 
de Sta Cruz at four years of age is in his best manner. 
In his "Adoration of the Magi," in the same collection, he 
has introduced a portrait of himself. He has a notable 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 5-7 

picture in the Church of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, at Mo- 
rel ia ; a colossal "San Cristobal" (dated 1722), in the 
cloister of the Colegio de Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe 
near Zacatecas, and a fine " Triumph of Mary " in the 
Church of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, at Celaya. One of 
his pictures — "St. Gertrude" — is dated 1690. 

Cristobal Villalpando, 

who painted in 171 3, "invented pict- 
ures," says Lucio, "with unusual facility; what he did 
was in poor taste — his drawing was bad and his col- 
oring worse." He is represented in the Sacristy of the 
Cathedral at Mexico by three large paintings : in the 
"Glory of St. Michael," the "Immaculate Conception," and 
the "Triumph of the Sacrament;" and in the National 
Academy by the "Interior of the Convent of the Bethle- 
mites." In 182^ pictures from his hand were to be seen 
in the churches of San Agustin and San Francisco at the 
Capital, and also at Queretaro and Celaya. 

Antonio Torres 

has three pictures at Guadalupe, near 
Zacatecas : " San Bonaventura receiving the Sacrament," 
the "Last Supper," and "San Francisco on the Monte 
Alverna," all painted in 1720. 



^8 mexican painters. 

Jose Torres 

painted for the Palace of the Inquisition, 
and is said to have been a pupil of the earliest Mexican 
artists. 

Don Miguel de Mendoza 

is represented by several pictures in 
Puebla, dated 1730. It is said that he was a native 
Indian, and that he received his title of " Don " from 
the King, to whom he had presented one of his paintings. 

El Hermano Manuel Jesuito, 

so called because he so signed his pict- 
ures, was a Mexican who drew indifferently, but suc- 
ceeded in infusing a certain sentiment into his figures. 
Two pictures of his are recorded : one, a large " Holy 
Family," is in the School of Medicine at Mexico ; the other, 
a " Virgin," is owned by Sr. Ramierez. He is also cred- 
ited with "The Last Supper," in the refectory of "The 
Fernandinos." 

Jose Ibarra, 

called from the richness of his color the 
Murillo of New Spain, was, without doubt, next to Cabrera 



MEXICA'N PAINTERS. 5^9 

the first Mexican painter of tlie Eighteenth Century ; in- 
deed, some of his works are considered equal to Cabrera's 
best. He may be studied at the National Academy in his 
"Woman of Samaria," the "Woman taken in Adultery," and 
in an admirable portrait — all in the second gallery. At 
Puebla, the Cathedral contains eleven interesting pictures : 
the "Holy Sacrament," the "Assumption," the "Apparition 
of Nuestra Senora de la Merced," a " Santa Leocadia," the 
" Virgin and Child," the " Last Supper," " Christ washing 
the feet of the Disciples," " The Virgin protecting the 
Chapter," the " Apparition of the Virgin del Pilar," and 
"San Ildefonso receiving the Chasuble," and at Guada- 
lupe, near Zacatecas, he has an ex-voto to San Jose. 
Beltrami, in 182^, speaks of an exquisite "St. Inez" in the 
Church of the Bethlemites, now converted into a public 
library. There is also a much-injured " Triumph of Mary " 
in the choir of the Compafiia at Guanajuato. The date 
1740 occurs on one, and 1747 and 175"! on others of this 
artist's works. 

Francisco Martinez 

produced many pictures for the religious 
houses, during the early years of the Eighteenth Century, 
in a style somewhat resembling that of the renowned 
Cabrera. 



6o MEXICy^N PAINTERS. 

Miguel Cabrera, 

a Zapoteca Indian, was born in Oaxaca. 
He is generally considered the first Mexican artist of his 
century. His pictures are frequently signed and dated, 
and during the years from 17^0 to 1767, and probably for 
a much longer period, he furnished the walls of the clois- 
ters and churches of the Capital and other cities of New 
Spain with a vast number of admirable works. No other 
painter of Mexico has covered larger canvases. At the 
same time many of his small pictures on copper, wood, 
and canvas are of superior excellence. His style is peculiar 
to himself and his epoch, it is light, facile, without labo- 
rious fmish, and his colors, thinly spread upon the canvas, 
are strikingly luminous. His capacity to represent the 
human hand, like that observed in all the Mexican painters 
of the last century, was deficient, but the drawing and 
expression of his heads are singularly good. 

Cabrera borrowed many of his compositions from the 
inventions of European masters that reached Mexico by 
means of engravings or otherwise. He preserved, how- 
ever, unswervingly his own peculiar style and manner of 
handling the pencil, and when he copied in oil celebrated 
trans-Atlantic pictures his admirers claim that he bestowed 
new attractions by changing the composition to suit his 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 6l 

own rich fancy. The grand picture tcnown as the "Virgin 
of the Apocalypse," the " Bernard and Anselm," and the 
portrait of himself, are in the National Academy. At 
Guanajuato, Cabrera painted a fine series of saints for the 
beautiful " Compainfa," and in the Sacristy of that church 
is his "Child Jesus blessing San Francisco Regis and San 
Francisco Borja," and his "Child Jesus blessing San Ignacio 
Loyola and San Francisco Xavier." In the Church of San 
Francisco, at Irapuato, he has a " Virgin of Guadalupe," and 
at Morelia a portrait of Bishop Palafox y Mendoza. Cabrera 
not only is known as a painter, an architect, and a sculptor, 
but also as an author. His book published in 17^6 was 
devoted to showing that the picture of the Virgin of Guad- 
alupe was painted neither in water colors nor in oil, nor 
in any other manner artificial or human. 

Jose Antonio Vallejo, 

a pupil of Cabrera, may be studied in 
the Church of San Diego, in Mexico, where are fifteen 
large pictures by him, notable among which are "The 
Last Supper," " The Prayer in the Garden," and " The 
Exposition of Christ." The fine votive picture on the 
stairway at the Conservatorio de Musica at the Capital, 
as well as "The Feast of the Pentecost" and "The Holy 



62 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

Family'* at the College of San lldefonso, are by him. Val- 
lejo has also two pictures in the Sacristy of the Parroquia 
at Guanajuato, "San Andres Avelino dying at the Altar," 
and " San Juan Nepomuceno confessing the Princess Joan 
of Bavaria," and pictures illustrating the lives of Santa 
Teresa and San Elias at the Church of the Carmen, in 
San Luis Potosi. 

Mariano Vasquez 

is called by Beltrami a worthy pupil of 
Cabrera and the Carlo Dolce of Mexico. 

Jose Alcibar 

was a pupil of Ibarra. He painted be- 
tween the years 1762 and 1793. There are two excellent 
works from his pencil in the Cathedral at Mexico— "The 
Last Supper" and "The Triumph of Faith," and in 182^ 
there was a fine "San Luis Gonzaga" in the Sacristy. At 
San Cosme he is represented by an interesting allegorical 
picture, and in the Church of San Marcos in Aguas Cali- 
entes he has an "Adoration of the Magi." 

Patricio Morlet, Francisco Leon, Nicolas Enriques, 
and Jose Paez 

painted after the manner of Cabrera, but 
none of them attained the excellence of that master. 



mexican painters. 63 

Don Francisco Gomez de Valencia, 

after producing a number of pictures for 
the Carmelite Brothers at Granada in Spain, came to 
Mexico, where he is represented by pictures of moderate 
merit. 

Andres Lopez, 

who painted in 1797, has a picture in 
the Parroquia at Aguas Calientes representing scenes from 
the life of San Juan Nepomuceno, and in the Church of 
the Encino a fine series of "The Stations of the Cross," 
lacking "The Descent from the Cross." 

Joseph Joaquin Magon and Manuel Caro 

were Puebla painters of fair capacity. 
They may be studied in the Santuario de Ocotlan, near 
Tlaxcala. 

Fr. Miguel de Herrera 

was an Agustin friar who painted in the 
period between 1742 and 1778. 

Juan Tinoco 

made Puebla his residence, and produced 
pictures that departed so widely from the established 



64 MEXICAN PAINTERS. 

Mexican style of the period that they are often mistaken 
for European worl<s. 

Joaquin Esquivel 

is represented by paintings in the Church 
of the Loreto, at the Capital. Probably the fine "San 
Georgio " beneath the choir, and " Scenes from the Life of 
Loyola," are from his hand. 

Antonio Echevarria 

was a skillful Mexican artist who with 
Juan de Dios Cerda made about fourteen hundred colored 
drawings of the flowering plants of New Spain. They 
were executed for the scientific exploring expedition sent 
out by the Spanish King, Charles IV., in 1795', under the 
direction of Martin Sesse. This collection is still unpub- 
lished, but is well known to botanists, who often refer to 
the copies in the De Candolle Library at Geneva. The 
originals were sent to De Candolle for publication, and 
two hundred and seventy-one species, including seventeen 
new genera, were founded upon the drawings alone. 

They were unexpectedly and peremptorily withdrawn 
by Mocino, an associate of Sesse, and the Genevan botan- 
ist was compelled to have them copied with the utmost 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 6^ 

rapidity. Tliis was accomplisiied, with the assistance of 
about a hundred ladies, in ten days. The names of Eche- 
varria and Cerda are permanently fixed in the scientific 
literature of encyclopedias and text-books. Through a 
fortunate accident their work touched at Geneva the great 
and growing current of modern civilized thought, and thus 
they were rescued by a foreigner from the unmerited neg- 
lect accorded their more talented compatriots. The genus 
Echeveria, among other vegetable productions known to 
American horticulturists, embraces air plants, whose bril- 
liant blossoms at certain seasons embellish the rough bark 
of evergreen oaks on the slopes of Orizaba, Mexico's 
grandest mountain. 

Juan de Dios Cerda 

was a clever artist associated with 
Echevarria. His name is permanently placed in scientific 
nomenclature by the genus Cerdia, which was formed to 
include certain plants that became known solely through 
the drawings sent, as before described, from Mexico to 
Madrid and thence to De Candolle at Geneva. Cerdia em- 
braces some curious little vegetables with pointed leaves, 
and flowers bearing but one stamen, that were recently 
rediscovered by Dr. Palmer near San Luis Potosf. 



66 mexican painters. 

Rafael Jimeno 

was a Spaniard and a disciple of Mengs. 
He came to the new world in 1791 to take a position in the 
Academy of San Carlos. To him was assigned the deco- 
ration of a part of the Cathedral dome at Mexico. He is 
often incorrect and theatric, but he succeeded better in 
mural painting than in other forms of artistic work. He is 
represented by a " St. Thomas " and a " Virgin with the 
Infant Christ" in the Church of Jesus Maria in the Capital. 

Eduardo Tresguerras 

was born in Celaya in 176^, and died 
there in 1833. He was an architect, sculptor, and painter, 
and has been called the Michael Angelo of Mexico. His 
great work is the Church of our Lady of Mt. Carmel, in 
his native city, a beautiful structure enriched by frescoes 
and oil paintings from his own hand. He has also a 
" Virgin of the Apocalypse " in Irapuato. 



The manuscript of this sketch was prepared more than a year ago 
and laid aside with the hope that it might be increased and corrected 
by further personal investigations in Mexico. The necessary journey 
has not yet been made. The author now prints it believing that pub- 
licity will be a means of bringing into his possession additional infor- 
mation wherewith to enlarge, revise, and systematize a work that has 
already occupied a number of delightful hours. 



CHAPTER Vll. 

PAINTERS OF THE SIXTEENTH, SEVENTEENTH, AND 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES, IN MEXICO. 



JUAN AGUILEAR. (" Virgin de la Purisi- 
ma," at the National Academy.) 

JOSE GINES DE AGUIRRE. (A painter 
sent from Spain to the Academy of 
San Carlos about 1785. He has a 
fine fresco in the Sagrario Metropol- 
itano.) 

JOSE ALCIBAR, 1775-1793- ("Saint 
Joseph," Lamborn collection.) See 
page 60. 

jose alfano. 
alvarado. 
Nicolas angulo. 

ANTONIO AGUILLERA. {Picture in the 
Church of the Incarnation.) 

ARELLANO. 1770. ("Head of an Ecclesi- 
astic, " Lamborn collection.) 

VENTURA ARNAES. 

ARRIAGA. 

SEBASTIAN ARTEAGA. See page 52. 

ALONZO BARBA. 

DlEGO BONGRAF, 1656. See page 53. 

fr. Diego becera. 



NICOLAS BECERA, 1653. ("Flight into 
Egypt," Lamborn collection.) See 
page 53. 

JOSE BUSTOS. 

Miguel CABRERA, 1750-1767. ("Virgin 
and Child'Crowned," Lamborn col- 
lection.) See page 60. 

Pedro Calderon, 1721. 
casanova, 1664. 
Manuel carcanio. 

Manuel CARO. (Pictures in Tlaxacala 
painted in 1781. " Female Head with 
Dove," Lamborn collection.) See 
page 63. 

IGNASIO CASTRO. 

RODRIGO de CIFUENTES, born 1493. 

ANDRES DE CONCHA, 1599. 

CASPAR CONRADO. 

TOMAS CONRADO. 

CORDERO. ("Christ in the Temple," 
Church of Jesus Maria, Mexico.) 

JUAN DE DIOS CERDA, 1795-1804. 
(Flower Painter.) See page 65. 



(67) 



68 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



JUAN CORREA, 1739. ("Saint Michael," 
"Saint Gabriel," and "Head of a 
Saint," Lamborn collection.) See 
page 55. 

MIGUEL CORREA. 

CRUDECINDO, JOSE DE. (Pupil of Juan 
Correa.) 

ANTONIO DELGADO. 

MANUEL DOMINGUEZ. 

BALTHAZAR ECHAVE (the elder), 1612- 
1630. ("St. Augustin," Lamborn 
collection.) See page 49. 

BALTHASAR ECHAVE (the younger), 1665. 
See page 54. 

MANUEL ECHAVE. 

ATANASIO ECHEVARRIA, 1795-1804. 
(Flower Painter.) See page 64. 

NICOLAS ENRIQUEZ, 1738. ("Mater 
Doloroso," Lamborn collection.) See 
page 62. 

DON MIGUEL ESPINOSA DE LOS MON- 
TEROS. 

JOAQUIN ESQUIVEL. See page 64. 

FRANCISCO DE LOS ANGELES, 1699. 
("The Twelve Apostles," at Los Re- 
medios.) 

NICOLAS FUEN LABARDA. 

SEBASTIAN DE GANTE. 

MANUEL GARCIA. (Architect and Painter 
in perspective.) 

GERONIMO ANTONIO GIL. (Principal 
engraver at the Mint and director of 
the School of Fine Arts, 1779.) 

francisco gomez de valencia. 
Rafael Gutierez. 
ROBERTO Gutierez. 



Manuel Guerrero. 
Mariano Guerrero, 
allisandro Guerrero. 

(The three Guerreros were brothers, 
and native Mexicans.) 

Juan HERRERA, called "The Divine." 
(Twelve pictures of Holy Martyrs in 
the Mexican Cathedral.) 

Fr. Miguel de herrera, 1742-1778. 

("Christ holding a Child," Lam- 
born collection.) See page 63. 

JOSE IBARRA, horn 1688, died 1756. 
("Saint Sebastian," Lamborn col- 
lection.) See page 58. 

INANES. 

ANDRES iSLAS, 1773. 

RAFAEL JIMENO. (Director of painting 
in the San Carlos Academy, 1791.) 
See page 66. 

Jose' Juarez (or Xuarez), 1653. See 
page 52. 

Luis Juarez (or Xuarez), 1610-1630. 
See page 54. 

JUAN RODRIGUEZ JUAREZ (or Xuarez), 
1702-1720. ("Virgin and Child," 
Lamborn collection.) See page 56. 

NICOLAS RODRIGUEZ JUAREZ (or 
Xuarez), 1690- 1722. See page 56. 

JUAN JOSEPH JURADO, 1727. ("San 
Rafael," Lamborn collection.) 

FRANCISCO LEON. See page 62. 

ANDRES LOPEZ, 1797. ("The Nativ- 
ity," Lamborn collection.) See page 
63. 

CLEMENTE LOPEZ. (Pupil of the found- 
ers of the Mexican School.) 

da'valos Sebastian Lopez. 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



69 



M. Luna. See page 55. 
LOPEZ DE HERRERA. 

El hermano Manuel jesuito. 

See page 58. 

Domingo MANRIQUE. (Architect and 
painter.) 

JOSEPH JOAQUIN MAGON, 1754. ("The 
Last Supper, " at Tlaxala.) See 
page 63. 

FRANCISCO MARTINEZ, 1721-1736. 
(" The Nativity," Lamborn collec- 
tion.) See page 59. 

DON MIGUEL MENDOZA, 1730. See 
page 58. 

PATRICIO MORLET, 1761. See page 62. 

JOSE MOTA, 1711. 

MANUEL ORELLANA. 

Manuel osorio. 

JOSE PAEZ. (Pictures in the Cloister of 
San Fernando.) See page 62. 

JOSE PARDO. 

PERULERO. 

DIEGO PEREZ, 1720. ("The Revelation 
to Saint Joseph," Lamborn collec- 
tion.) 

PASCUAL PEREZ. 

francisco plata. 
Pedro Quintana. 
FRANCISCO Ramirez. 
Pedro Ramirez. See page 54. 

ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, 1668. (" San Au- 
gustin," at the National Academy.) 

Juan Jose Rodriguez, 1684. 

Juan SAENS. (Painted a greater part of 
the interior of the Cathedral dome.) 



JUAN SALGUERO. 

J. SanCHES SalmeRON, 1670. See page 
54. 

ANTONIO SANCHES. (Pupil of Juan 
Correa.) 

SANTANDER. 

Manuel Serna. 

P. SILVA. 

" LA SUMAYA." See page 51. 

TELPOCHTEPICO. See page 52. 

CRISTOBAL TALAVERA, 1730. 

Juan TINOCA. See page 63. 

ANTONIO TORRES, 1719-1720. ("Last 
Supper," " San Bonaventura," and 
"San Francisco on the Monte Alver- 
na," at Guadalupe, near Zacatecas.) 
See page 57. 

JOSE TORRES. See page 58. 

EDUARDO TRESGUERRAS, born 1765, 
died 1833. See page 66. 

Juan DE URTADO. (Architect and 
painter in perspective.) 

JOSE VALDERRAIN. 

Don Francisco goa\ez de Valen- 
cia. See page 63. 

Francisco Antonio vallesco. 

("The Death of San Francisco 
Xavier at San Ildefonso.") 

JOSE ANTONIO VALLEJO, 1767. See 
page 61. 

JOSE MARIA VAZQUEZ, 1797. 

ALONZO VASQUEZ. (Contemporary of 
Echave el Viejo.) 

MARIANO VASQUEZ. See page 62. 

JOSE JOAQUIN VEGA, 1783. 



f.*' 



ffiS 



yo 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



Velazquez. (An architect and painter 
sent from Spain as professor at the 
Academy of San Carlos about 1785.) 

Cristobal Villalpando, 1711-1713. 
See page 57. 

Carlos villalpando. 



JUAN DE VILLALOBOS. 
TIaxcala.) 



(Pictures at 



VILLAVICENCIO. 

JOSE VILLEGAS, 1657. 

RAFAEL XlMENES. 

ZALAZAR, 1613. 

ALONZO ZARATE. 

Miguel ZENDEJAS. (Picture in the Ca- 
thedral at Puebla.) 



With a few exceptions the dates given have been observed on pictures signed by the artists. 

It is interesting to note that in 1887 a tardy and scant justice was rendered to some 
half dozen early Mexican painters by Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, 
a work possessing a rare guarantee of scholarly completeness in the name of John 
Fiske upon the title page; but in the 1889 edition of that great compendium of 
biographical knowledge, " Phillips' Dictionary," with its more than one hundred 
thousand names of persons more or less distinguished, collected from seven lan- 
guages and forty-nine national encyclopedias, dictionaries, and catalogues, I find 
not a single reference to Mexican art or Mexico's artists. 



PAINTINGS 

Illustrating the Mexican Branch 



SP^A^ISH SCHOOL. 



The work of artists in new Spain during the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centuries. 



Collected in the City of Mexico in i88i and i88^, by Robert H. Lamborn, 

and now deposited on loan with the Pennsyhwiia Museum, 

at Memorial Hall, Philadelphia. 



1. SAINT GABRIEL. 

Angel, holding White Lily. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 6 feet by } 
feet. Signed "Juan Correa, 17)9." 

2. SAINT MICHAEL. 

Angel carrying a Cross with Inscrip- 
tion. " Quis ut dc-us." 

Painted on canvas. Si{e, 5 feet 11 
inches by J feet t inch. Signed "Juan 
Correa, 1739." 

3. A FLAMING HUMAN HEART, WITH THE 

FIGURE OF A CRUCIFIED CHRIST 
UPON IT. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 4 
inches hy i foot 2 inches. 

4. THE SAVIOUR. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 8 
inches by 2 feet. Inscription, " Portrait 



from and coftume of Cbrijl our Lord, 
according to the defcription by St. An- 

felm, and the portrait painted by St. 
Luke." 

5, 6, 7, AND 8 

Illustrate upon an ornamented ground 

THE SpAMSH sentence INSCRIBED ON 
EACH picture. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 10 
inches by 1 foot 4 inches. Infcriptions : 
No. 5, " Nada es con parable ai verda- 
dcro amigo ;" No. 6, "No ha de enfa- 
dar el vicio del amigo ; " No. 7, " Nada 
dessea quien tiene loque basta;" No. S, 
' ' El l^irtuoso trabaxo pide su reposo. ' ' 



9. THE NATIVITY. 

Painted on canvas, 
inches by 11 inches. 



St^e, I foot 4 



(71) 



72 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



10. SAINT LIMBANIA VIRGIN, SUR- 
ROUNDED BY SYMPATHETIC WILD 
ANIMALS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, } fset y 
incises by 5 feet 6 inches. Signed " Fr. 
Miguel de Herrera, August iiio, 17^5." 

11. PORTRAIT OF JUANA INEZ DE LA 

CRUZ. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, } feet 5 
inches by 2 feet S inches. From Pueb- 
lo, Mexico. Infcription, on the book, 
" IVorks of the unique poetess, Sifter 
juana Ine^ de la Cru^ ; " below, "Faith- 
ful copy of another which she herfelf 
made and painted with her own hand. 
The Rev. Mother Juana Ine^ de la Cru(, 
Phcenix of America, glorious perfection 
of her fex, honor of the nation of the 
New IVorld, and subject of the admira- 
tion and praises of the Old. She was 
born November 12th of the year 16^1, at 
II in the evening. She received the re- 
ligious habit of the Doctor Maximus, St. 
Jerome, in bis convent in this city of 
Mexico, at 17 years of age, and she 
died on Tuesday, April I7tb, i6gg, her 
age being forty-seven years 5 months 
5 days and 5 hours. May she rest in 
peace. Amen." 

12. SAINT JOSEPH. 

Painted on canvas. Si{e, 2 feet 1 
inch hy 2 feet 97-2 inches. 

13. THE LAST SUPPER. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 6 feet 4 
inches by } feet 7 inches. 

14. THE REV. MOTHER MARIA ANTONIA 

DE RIVERA. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 4 feet 1 
inch bv 2 feet 7 inches. Probably the 
costume in which she is represented is 



that worn during the ceremony incident 
upon entering the order. Infcription, 
" The Rev. Mother Maria Antonia 
de Rivera, Nun of the Holy Company 
of the Most Blessed Mary, commonly 
called Education. She received the hab- 
it at the age of ig years, on the gth 
of November, 1755, and professed on 
the 12th of December, 1737, in the 
Holy Convent of Our Lord of the Bap- 
tismal Font of the city of Mexico, at 
the hands of the most illustrious Doctor 
Don Manuel Antonio Rolodt Rio y 
Bieyra, most worthy Archbishop of the 
city of Manila." InJ'criptions running 
up on each side of picture : Fue electa 
Priora en Relecta e la misma f 'h a,y 
el dia Miercoles 12. 24 de Mar^o de 
1791, mesdt ano d <)4, Fallecio d Ma^o 
d 1806." 

15. SAINT ANTHONY IN PRAYER BEFORE 

THE CHILD JESUS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 7 
inches by 5 feet 6 inches. Signed " Fr. 
Miguel de Herrera, Angustino, 172^." 

16. ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 8 
inches by 2 feet 2 inches. 

17. A MEXICAN NUN. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, } feet } 
inches by 2 feet 5 inches. Infcription, 
"The Lady Ine^ Topha, of the Heart of 
Jesus, a professed religious in the new 
convent of St. Theresa of Mexico. She pro- 
fessed the 23th of June, in the year 1756." 

18. A BLACK VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Surrounded by Angels and Worshipers. 
Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 5 
inches by 4 feet 5 inches. 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



7? 



19. SAN RAFAEL. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 4 
inches hy S feet 5 3-4 inches. Signed 
"Juan Joseph Jurado, '727." 

20. SAINT JOSEPH KNEELING TO THE 

VIRGIN. 

Angels in Background. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 4 
inches hy 4 feet 2 inches. Signed "A. 
Lope^." 

21. HEAD OF A PILGRIM. 

A RECENT ME.\ICAN PICTURE. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 7 
inches by 1 foot 10 inches. 

22. ANGEL WITH FLOWERS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 5 
inches hy } feet } inches. 

23. THE VIRGIN, WITH CHERUBS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, } feet S 
inches by 2 feet g inches. 

24. CHRIST BOUND, AND ST. PETER. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 11 
inches by 2 feet 2 inches. 

25. ANGEL IN CLOUDS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 5 
inches by j feet } inches. 

26. SAN JUAN DE DIOS, WITH POME- 

GRANATE SURMOUNTED BY CROWN 
AND CROSS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet i inch 
by I foot 4 inches. 

27. CROWNED VIRGIN, WITH INFANT 

JESUS GUARDED BY ANGELS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 10 
inches hy 1 foot 6 inches. 



28. CARMELITE NUN, IN THE HABIT OF 
THE ORDER, CARRYING FOOD TO 
A PRISONER. 

Painted on canvas. Si{e, 5 feet 10 
inches by j feet 6 inches. (See companion 
picture, No. }i.) 

zg. THE NATIVITY. 

Angels hold a Scroll, with Inscription. 

Painted on canvas. Si{e, 4 feet ^ 
inches hy i foot 10 inches. Signed 
" Martine^." 

30. HEAD OF CHRIST. 

Modern Study, Mexican. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 8 
inches by 1 foot } inches. 

31. CARMELITE NUN, IN THE HABIT OF 

THE ORDER, READING TO AN IN- 
DIAN THROUGH THE BARS OF HIS 
PRISON. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 5 feet 10 
inches by j feet 6 inches. {See companion 
picture. No. 2S.) 

32. SAINT SEBASTIAN SUFFERING MAR- 

TYRDOM. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 1 inch 
by I foot 6 inches. Signed "Joseph de 
Ibarra, fecit." 

33. ADAM AND EVE DRIVEN FROM THE 

GARDEN OF EDEN. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 2 
inches by i foot 7 inches. 

34. THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, i foot 7 
inches hy 2 feet. Signed "5. P. De 
Becerra. ' ' 



74 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



35. SAN AGUSTIN. 

A PICTURE BELONGING TO THE SPANISH 
SCHOOL OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY, 
ASCRIBED TO BALTHASAR ECAHVE, THE 
ELDER. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 1 foot 7 
inches hv 1 foot $ inches. 

36. ANGELS BEARING ECCLESIASTICAL 

INSIGNIA. 

Portion of a large picture. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feel to 
inches by 2 feet ) inches. 

37. ANGELS BEARING ECCLESIASTICAL 

INSIGNIA. 

Painted on canvas. Si{e, 2 feet 10 
inches by 2 feet 3 inches. Signed 
" Francus Ants, a yallejo, ft." 

38. THE VIRGIN, AMONG CLOUDS, SUR- 

ROUNDED BY CHERUBS. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 4 feet 11 
inches by j feet 4 inches. 

39. PORTRAITS OF TWO MEXICAN CHIL- 

DREN OF THE HIGHER RANK. 
Painted a Century or more ago, in the 
Costume of the Period. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 4 
inches by 2 feet 4 inches. 

40. THE GUARDIAN ANGEL. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 2 feet 8 
inches by j feet 4 inches. 

41. THE NATIVITY— THE WISE MEN OF 

THE EAST. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, jj feet by } 
feet 7 inches. Signed ' ' Andreas Lope^, 

42. THE REVELATION TO SAINT JOSEPH. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 4 feet 8 
inches by j feet 6 inches. Signed " Diego 
Pere{, 1720." 



43. SAN JOAQUIN. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, i foot 4 1-2 
inches by 1 foot 1 inch. 

44. SANTA ANA. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, i foot 4 1-2 
inches by 1 foot s-4 inch. 

45. AN APOSTLE. 

Painted on wood. Si{e, 5 inches by 
} }-4 inches. 

46. SAINT GERTRUDE. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, 4 inches by 
J inches. 

47. THE SAVIOUR. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, 2 inches by 
I j-4 inches. 

48. SAN RAFAEL. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, 4 r-4 inches 
by 6 inches. 

49. SAINT PETER. 

Painted on wood. Si^e, 5 inches by 
} ^-4 inches. 

50. S. PEDRO NOLASDO AND THE DI- 

VINE PASTOR. 
Double Picture. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, 2 inches by 
21-2 inches. 

51. MATER DOLOROSA. 

Painted on copper. Si:;e, 11 1-4 inches 
by 8 1-2 inches. Signed " Nicholas En- 
rique^, /7j?S." 

52. SAINT CHRISTOPHER WITH THE IN- 

FANT SAVIOUR. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 1 foot 4 j-4 
inches by 1 foot 3-4 inch. 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



n 



53. SAN ANTONIO. 

Painted on copper. St\e, 6 j-4 inches 
by 5 inches. 

54. VIRGIN AND CHILD. 

Painted on copper. Si{e, 11 inches hy 
8 1-2 inches. Signed "Juan Rodriguez 
Juare^, iyo2." 

55. S. JUAN DE DIOS AND SAN CRIS- 

TOVAL. 
Double Picture. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, y 1-2 inches 
bv 5 1-2 inches. 

56. SAINT JUAN NEPAMUSONA. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 111-2 inches 
by 8 1-2 inches. Signed " N. En- 
rique^, f. ' ' 

57. THE DIVINE SHEPHERD. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 9 inches by 
7 j-4 inches. 

58. SAN FRANCISCO XAVIER. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, i 1-2 feet by 
to inches. 

59- OLD PORTRAIT OF A MEXICAN LADY 
IN THE COSTUME OF THE PERIOD. 
Painted on copper. Si^e, 61-4 inches 
by 4 s-4 inches. 

60. SAN AGUSTIN OVANDO. 

Engraving on paper painted in oil. 
Si^e, 6 1-2 inches by 4 ^-4 inches. Dated 
1784. 

61. ESCUDO. 

Worn by the Mexican Nuns, suspended 
FROM THE Neck. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, diameter, 6 
inches. 



62. ESCUDO. 

In Tortoise-shell Frame. Worn by the 
Mexican Nuns suspended from the 
Neck. See the Portrait of Inez de la 
Cruz. 

Diameter, 51-2 inches. 

63. THE VIRGIN OF LOS DOLORES. 

Engraving Painted in Oil. 
10 3-4 inches high. 

64. THE NATIVITY. 

Basso Rilievo, in Colored Alabaster. 

65. THE ASSUA\PTION. 

Basso Rilievo, in Colored Alabaster. 

66. CHRIST BOUND. 

Made in part of Silk Threads. From a 
Mexican Convent. 

67. SAINT JOSEPH AND THE INFANT 

JESUS. 

Made in part of Silk Threads. From a 
Mexican Convent. 

68. THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE. 

Small Colored Engraving. 

69. LET LITTLE CHILDREN COME UNTO 

ME. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 11 1-4 inches 
hy 16 inches. Signed Miguel de Herrera, 
177S. 

70. VIRGIN AND CHILD CROWNED. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 12 1-2 inches 
by 16 inches. Mich. Cabrera, 1762. 

71. A MARTYR. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 8 1-4 inches 
ky 5 }-4 inches. Signed Cabrera. 

72. FEMALE HEAD WITH DOVE. 

Painted on canvas. Si^e, 12 1-4 inches 
by 16 inches. Signed Manl. Caro. 



76 



MEXICAN PAINTERS. 



73. HOLY PERSONS. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, lo inches hv 
121-4 inches. 

74. HEAD OF AN ECCLESIASTIC. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 10 1-4 inches 
hy 1} 1-2 inches. Signed /trellano, iTjo. 

75. THE ANGEL OF DEATH. 

Painted on copper. Si^e, 61-4 inches hy 

5 1-4 inches. 

76. HEAD OF A SAINT. 

Painted on panel. Si^e, 8^-4 inches hy 

6 inches. Signed Juan Correa. 

77. SANTA ROSA DE LIMA. 

The only born American Saint. Born at 
Lima, Peru, in 1586; died, 1617; canon- 
ized, 1671. 

Painted on hammered copper. Si^e, 
12 1-2 inches by /} 1-2 inches. See pho- 
togravure. 



ITALIAN PICTURES. 

A. I. THE ANNUNCIATION. 

Painted on wood in tempera, with gold 
background. Si^e, 75 ^-4 inches by 10 
1-4 inches. From the Cardinal Bartolini 
sale, Rome, January, iSSS. Considered 
an original Spinello Spineli. 

A. 2. THE ANNUNCIATION. 

Painted on wood in tempera. Si^e, 
10 3-4 inches by 7 ^-4 inches. The 
Florentine school of the Fifteenth Cent- 
ury, lyith the arms of Cardinal Bar- 
tolini carved and colored in the frame. 
From the Bartolini sale, Rome, iSSS. 

A. 3. LOVE FORGING A DART. 

On copper. Diameter, 4 3-4 inches. 
A double picture. From the Giacomini 
sale, Rome, iSSS. 

A. 4. SAINT AGNES. 

Half figure painted on wood in tem- 
pera, with gold background. School of 
Giotto. From the Scalambrini sale, 
Rome, 18SS. Si^e, 10 1-2 inches by 1} 
1-2 inches. 



THE END.